Monday, April 15, 2013
Saturday, November 06, 2010
verbs followed by gerunds
verbs followed by infinitives
Verbs Followed by Nouns + Infinitives
Verbs Followed by Either Gerunds OR Nouns + Infinitives
gerunds after possessives
List of prepositions
part 1+ exercises
Thursday, September 30, 2010
Thursday, September 02, 2010
FCE PRACTICE ONLINE
FCE PRACTICE ONLINE 2
FCE PRACTICE ONLINE 3
FCE PRACTICE ONLINE 4
CAE ONLINE PRACTICE 1
CAE ONLINE PRACTICE 2
Monday, November 30, 2009
Inversion refers to an irregular verb placement form:
Use of Question Form
In this case, the question form (auxiliary + subject + main verb) takes the place of the standard positive sentence structure (i.e. He goes to work every day):
Not only do I enjoy classical music, but I also have a season ticket to the symphony.
Seldom has the boss been so upset!
In this case, the question form is substituted for standard sentence structure in a statement. Generally, an inversion is used to stress the uniqueness of an event and begins with a negative.
Time expressions: never, rarely, seldom
These time expressions are used with a perfect form or with modals and often include comparatives:
Never have I been more insulted!
Seldom has he seen anything stranger.
Time expressions: hardly, barely, no sooner, or scarcely
These time expressions are used when a there are a succession of events in the past.
Scarcely had I got out of bed when the doorbell rang.
No sooner had he finished dinner, when she walked in the door.
After 'Only' Expressions such as 'only after', 'only when', 'only then', etc.
'Only' is used with a time expression.
Only then did I understand the problem.
Only after understanding the situation does the teacher make a comment.
'Little' is used in a negative sense.
Little did he understand the situation.
Little have I read concerning nanotechnology.
Inversion after 'So', 'Such', and 'That'
'So + adjective ... that' combines with the verb 'to be'.
So strange was the situation that I couldn't sleep.
So difficult is the test that students need three months to prepare.
'So + to be + noun ... (that)':
Such is the moment that all greats traverse.
Such is the stuff of dreams.
Inverted Conditional Forms
Sometimes conditional forms are inverted as a means of sounding more formal. In this case, the conditional 'if' is dropped and the inverted forms takes the place of the 'if clause'.
Had he understood the problem, he wouldn't have committed those mistakes.
Should he decide to come, please telephone.
1- HARDLY, SCARCELY, BARELY, NO SOONER
2- NEVER, RARELY, IN / UNDER NO CIRCUMSTANCES, IN NO WAY, NOT ONLY ... BUT ALSO, LITTLE etc.
3- ONLY AFTER, ONLY IF, ONLY IN THIS WAY etc., NOT UNTIL
NEGATIVE AND LIMITING ADVERBIALS
For each of the following sentences, add the negative expression shown in brackets at the beginning of the sentence, and make any other changes that are necessary. For example:
I had reached home when I remembered the message. (hardly)
Hardly had I reached home when I remembered the message.
We had the opportunity to do whatever we wanted. (seldom)
Seldom did we have the opportunity to do whatever we wanted.
1. We had entered the room when the telephone rang. (scarcely)
2. I have seen a more beautiful ballet than that one. (never)
3. We realized that a dangerous stretch of road lay ahead of us. (little)
4. I have worked as hard as I could. (never before)
5. A writer can express his exact feelings in words. (rarely)
6. We perceive everything that is around us. (hardly ever)
7. One can find a more striking example of erosion than the
8. They guessed what was about to happen. (little)
9. I am entirely satisfied with my situation. (seldom)
10. One comprehends a complex situation immediately. (rarely)
(Click on the picture to enlarge)
The causative is a common structure in English. It is used when one thing or person causes another thing or person to do something. This page will explain how causatives are formed, and how to use them.
(Source: See original page!!!!!!)
Monday, November 09, 2009
Conditional sentences: Videos
And now, let's practice!!
GAME WITH SONG!!!
Complete, print, and bring it to class :)
Wednesday, October 21, 2009
When we are telling a story and recollecting an event from long ago, we often prefer to use would to describe repeated behavior in the past, although both would and used to are possible.
Note that would describes past events and actions. It cannot be used to refer to past states. To describe past states we can only use used to:
Used to can be used for repeated/habitual actions AND states.
Would can only be used to talk about repeated/habitual actions in the past.
State verbs generally fall into 4 groups and you can't use "Would" to refer a past habit in the past. Use Used to with these verbs!!
Emotion: love, hate, want, need
Possession: have, own, want, belong
Senses: see, hear, smell, seem
Thought: know, believe, remember
Used to Video
Used to/Would Video
The word wish is similar in meaning to the expression "would like":
|I wish I had a big house = I would like to have a big house. (My house now is small) |
|I wish I had been there = I would like to have been there.(but I wasn't there) |
|I wish you would stop talking = I would like you to stop talking.|
|I wish to see the manager = I would like to see the manager.|
|I wish you a Merry Christmas = I would like you to have a Merry Christmas.|
Its main use is to express regret that things are not different. It is possible to use wish in this way to talk about both the present/future and the past:
|I wish (that) I weren't here now.(I'd like to be somewhere else!) |
|I wish (that) I didn't have to go to school tomorrow.(...but I have to) |
|I wish (that) I had studied harder when I was at school.(I didn't study enough) |
Notice that the verb tenses that follow wish are the same as those used in the second and third conditionals (see Grammar definitions).
Also notice the word that can be omitted in more informal speech.
The expression wish … would is used to talk about (lack of) willingness to do things:
|I wish you would tidy your room.(becasue your room is a mess) |
|I wish you wouldn't always come home so late. (you never come on time |
In a formal style, wish + (object) + infinitive can be used in the same way as "want":
|I wish to speak to the director.|
|Do you wish me to serve refreshments, sir?|
|Wish is also used in some fixed expressions:|
|I/we wish you a Merry Christmas (and a Happy New Year).|
|I/we wish you well/all the best. |
Ex 2 (Game)
Ex 4 (Game)